Christine Sixta Rinehart, Ph.D.
University of South Carolina
Phone: (864) 424-8050
Address: Central Building C102A 309 E. Academy Street
City: Union, South Carolina - 29379
Country: United States
I am an Associate Professsor of Political Science in Palmetto College, a division within the University of South Carolina. My areas of expertise are international relations and comparative politics. My research focuses on US foreign policy, international terrorism, counterterrorism, and female terrorism. I earned my Ph.D. in Political Science in 2008 from the University of South Carolina. I am an advanced Spanish speaker being able to read Spanish fluently and communicate well.
Religion & Politics
Latin American And Caribbean Politics
Middle East & North African Politics
The Stabbing Intifada
Countries of Interest
My research primarily focuses on terrorism and counterterrorism and naturally includes United States' Foreign Policy. I have published three books in the past five years in addition to numerous articles and book chapters. I recently published my third book which looks at the roles of jihadist female terrorists with Lexington Books. I am currently working on a book concerning the costs of drone or UAV warfare with the University of Alabama Press that will be published in 2020 and another book on the Stabbing Intifada (with Lexington Books). My areas of expertise include the Middle East and North Africa, particularly Egypt and Israel. My other area of expertise is Latin America, particularly focusing on Colombia and Mexico. I have also published work on abortion and maternal healthcare.
The United States has been using Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) to assassinate terrorist targets since its first RPA strike on November 3, 2002, when a U.S. Predator fired a hellfire missile at a car traveling through the Mar’ib province of Yemen. The intelligence cycle of this targeted killing process is murky at best, and the policy has changed throughout the successive administrations of U.S. presidents. Details exist but there is no defined tangible chain of analysis concerning the selection of the target, the monitoring of the target, and finally, the assassination of the target. This paper attempts to elucidate the intelligence chain of analysis concerning American targeted killing and examine how the intelligence cycle of targeted killing varies through successive presidential administrations.
Journalists and academics have frequently speculated on President Trump’s drone policy, with many surmising that he has increased drone strikes relative to the number conducted by the Obama administration. During his electoral campaign, President Trump lacked clarity in defining his drone policy. When questioned about conducting drone strikes against ISIS, he simply stated, “I would bomb the Hell out of them.” However, now that he is in office, he has rarely talked about drones, let alone drone strikes.
On March 21, 2016, in a political campaign speech to the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC), Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump vowed “We will move the American Embassy to the eternal capital of the Jewish people, Jerusalem” and, true to his word, a year after the election on December 6, 2017, he announced that the American Embassy would be moved from Tel Aviv to its new location in Jerusalem. The purpose of this article is to examine the reasons for this decision and to discuss the possible foreign policy implications of the transfer, particularly concerning the Israeli-Palestinian Peace Process.
The United States’ Air Force (USAF) has developed and used unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology to monitor and assassinate dangerous terrorists in Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Pakistan, Somalia, Syria, and Yemen. Currently, there are few countries that possess armed UAV and since the US created much of this technology, the USAF is usually part of the training that automatically accompanies the purchase of its UAVs. The research question this article attempts to answer is, “What is the extent of the United States’ Air Force assistance in the training and proliferation of UAV technology to foreign militaries?”
President Obama's foreign policy grand strategy can be described by the terms shadowboxing or shadowboxer. Shadowboxing is a technique that boxers use to practice, sparring with imaginary opponents or attacking shadows in preparation for the real fight. Similarly, President Obama attacks covert threats but rarely responds to visible or viable threats. Like a practicing boxer, President Obama is fighting the murky shadows while refusing to engage the main stage in the international arena. Obama's foreign policy grand strategy consists of the following five tenets. (1) Modest Retrenchment in Foreign Policy Spending. (2) Rebuilding America's Reputation: The Anti-Thesis of George W. Bush. (3) Multilateralism. (4) Nonintervention and Avoiding “Boots on the Ground.” (5) Assertive Counterterrorism.
We examine regulations in thirteen Southern states regarding access to legal abortion, procedures for juveniles and minors seeking birth control or abortions, clinic regulations, and the dynamics of public funding of birth control and abortion. Southern state legislatures play an important strategic role in national anti-legal abortion politics. We analyze the paradox of the Southern population utilizing legal abortion and birth control at comparable levels to other regions of the country, while Southern legislatures consistently restrict access to these options. Our paper integrates gender, social class, race, and sexuality into our analysis of this aspect of Southern and national politics. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The writer examines the factors that contributed to the radicalization of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. First, the social movement resorted to the use of terrorist tactics under the command of its charismatic leader and founder, Hasan al-Banna. Second, the Brotherhood underwent radicalization because Hasan al-Banna himself was radicalized throughout time. Third, the use of terrorist tactics eventuated from the movement's increasing frustration at the successive failures of its attempts to reform the Egyptian population.
Are terrorist women the new “new women” in developing societies? Comparative cross‐national and longitudinal case studies of female terrorists ascertain that female terrorists in developing societies are similar to early feminists from the First and Second Waves of feminism. Although feminism is inherently a Western word and many female terrorists do not identify with this terminology, female terrorists are often fighting for political equality and the betterment of their gender. Female terrorists face what is called a triple bind of oppression: societal gender inequalities, oppression within their terrorist groups, and Western oppression from imperialist nations. These three kinds of oppression, or the triple bind, often hold female terrorists back from gaining political equality. However, the triple bind is also what makes these female terrorists militant in the first place.
Female terrorists are a rare phenomenon. Less than ten terrorist organizations throughout the world have women. These terrorist groups are either Marxist (atheist) or Jihadist in their ideologies. This book ascertains, “What is the role of Islam in female terrorism?” It explores the roles of women in eight jihadist case studies including: Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigade, the Chechen Separatists, Boko Haram, HAMAS, Hezbollah, ISIS, the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood, and Al Qaeda. Secondary sources and primary sources are used including research conducted on Palestinian women in Israeli prisons who have been convicted of terrorism. It is argued that are three roles for women in Jihadist terrorism: the disposable, the domestic, and the secretary. The theory posited in this book is that the role of women in terrorist groups is similar to their cultural/religious roles in society
The United States has repeatedly used drones to kill terrorists in Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Pakistan, Somalia, Syria, and Yemen in an effort to decrease terrorism and the vitality of terrorist groups. Targeted killing through the use of drones has become a foreign policy weapon to keep the United States safe from further terrorist attacks. However, it is suspected that these killings has actually led to an increase in terrorist group recruitment, terrorist attacks, and empathy for the terrorist group from the local population in addition to several other unwanted repercussions. The two part research question this book attempts to answer is, “What is the effect of drone targeted killing on Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Pakistan, Somalia, Syria, and Yemen? And is it a successful method in the War on Terror?”
Although many scholars have studied terrorism, few scholars have ever studied terrorism from the aspect of its initial origins in social movements. Not only is research concerning this phenomenon outdated, but there has also been no consensus as to what causes terrorism. Many contemporary terrorist organizations were once social movements that formed for a specific purpose using nonviolent tactics to accomplish their agenda. Eventually, terrorist tactics became the method of choice for these once peaceful social movements. Volatile Social Movements and the Origins of Terrorism: The Radicalization of Change, by Christine Sixta Rinehart, focuses on why this transition occurred; why did a peaceful social movement transition to a terrorist organization? The case studies in this book include the Muslim Brotherhood, the ETA, the FARC, and the LTTE. The study focuses on the individual characteristics, group dynamics, and external forces that caused social movements to use terrorist tactics. It is ascertained who made the decision to use terrorism, and why and how that person or group of people ascended to a leadership position within the social movement. After the (person) people, time, and place are found pertaining to the first decision to use terrorism, Sixta Rinehart examines why terrorism became an attractive option for each social movement. Volatile Social Movements and the Origins of Terrorism asks a necessary question for scholars and researchers in counterterrorism and international policy: Under what conditions do social movements resort to the use of terrorist tactics?
Contemporary Debates on Terrorism is an innovative textbook, addressing a number of key issues in terrorism studies from both traditional and 'critical' perspectives. This second edition has been revised and updated to cover contemporary issues such as the rise of ISIL and cyberterrorism. In recent years, the terrorism studies field has grown in quantity and quality, with a growing number of scholars rooted in various professional disciplines beginning to debate the complex dynamics underlying this category of violence. Within the broader field, there are a number of identifiable controversies and questions which divide scholarly opinion and generate opposing arguments. These relate to theoretical issues, such as the definition of terrorism and state terrorism, substantive issues like the threat posed by al Qaeda/ISIL and the utility of different responses to terrorism, different pathways leading people to engage in terrorist tactics and ethical issues such as the use of drones. This new edition brings together in one place many of the field’s leading scholars to debate the key issues relating to a set of 16 important controversies and questions. The format of the volume involves a leading scholar taking a particular position on the controversy, followed by an opposing or alternative viewpoint written by another scholar. In addition to the pedagogic value of allowing students to read opposing arguments in one place, the volume will also be important for providing an overview of the state of the field and its key lines of debate. This book will be essential reading for students of terrorism studies and political violence, critical terrorism studies, security studies and IR in general.
This volume of The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture reflects the dramatic increase in research on the topic of gender over the past thirty years, revealing that even the most familiar subjects take on new significance when viewed through the lens of gender. The wide range of entries explores how people have experienced, understood, and used concepts of womanhood and manhood in all sorts of obvious and subtle ways.The volume features 113 articles, 65 of which are entirely new for this edition. Thematic articles address subjects such as sexuality, respectability, and paternalism and investigate the role of gender in broader subjects, including the civil rights movement, country music, and sports. Topical entries highlight individuals such as Oprah Winfrey, the Grimke sisters, and Dale Earnhardt, as well as historical events such as the capture of Jefferson Davis in a woman's dress, the Supreme Court's decision in Loving v. Virginia, and the Memphis sanitation workers'strike, with its slogan,'I AM A MAN.'Bringing together scholarship on gender and the body, sexuality, labor, race, and politics, this volume offers new ways to view big questions in southern history and culture.
Voting in America
book review on 'Drones and Support for the Use of Force’
Book Review of Jihadism Transformed
Book review on Gendering Global Conflict, Toward a Feminist Theory of War
Book Review of Righting Feminism
My opinions concerning the Iranian Nuclear Crisis and President Obama's Deal.
What is causing the crisis in Egypt? It is not the quest for democracy. It is more likely that lack of food due to a 60 percent increase in commodity prices is causing Egyptians to riot. This worldwide inflation is due to our federal government's QE2 program, enacted by Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke...
Types of Cookies we use
This site employs two first-party cookies (served from us and by us that are essential for the site to operate) and two third-party cookies that deliver external services.
We use a server-generated session cookie to remember you when you are logged in to the site. This is essential to making sure that your profile details are those that are updated when you log in to make changes. This also lets us know who is logging into the site and when.
This site also uses a cookie that is created by your browser to remember when you agree to the cookie notice popup. This cookie stores nothing but the word "true" if you have agreed to the terms and is deleted when you close your browser. This cookie's only function is to prevent the cookie notice from popping up every time you refresh the site's homepage.
How to Disable Cookies Altogether
Information on how to disable cookies in your browser can be found here. Please keep in mind that disabling cookies will prevent the essential functions of most interactive websites and web applications, this site included.
This privacy notice discloses the privacy practices for (womenalsoknowstuff.com). This privacy notice applies solely to information collected by this website. It will notify you of the following:
Information Collection, Use, and Sharing
If you have any questions about this Privacy Notice, or need to contact us, we can be reached at .
Terms and Conditions
Last updated: August 04, 2019
Please read these Terms and Conditions ("Terms", "Terms and Conditions") carefully before using the http://womenalsoknowstuff.com website (the "Service") operated by Women Also Know Stuff ("us", "we", or "our"). Your access to and use of the Service is conditioned upon your acceptance of and compliance with these Terms. These Terms apply to all visitors, users and others who wish to access or use the Service. By accessing or using the Service you agree to be bound by these Terms. If you disagree with any part of the terms then you do not have permission to access the Service.
Our Service allows you to post, link, store, share and otherwise make available certain information, text, graphics, videos, or other material ("Content"). You are responsible for the Content that you post on or through the Service, including its legality, reliability, and appropriateness. By posting Content on or through the Service, You represent and warrant that: (i) the Content is yours (you own it) and/or you have the right to use it and the right to grant us the rights and license as provided in these Terms, and (ii) that the posting of your Content on or through the Service does not violate the privacy rights, publicity rights, copyrights, contract rights or any other rights of any person or entity. We reserve the right to terminate the account of anyone found to be infringing on a copyright. You retain any and all of your rights to any Content you submit, post or display on or through the Service and you are responsible for protecting those rights. We take no responsibility and assume no liability for Content you or any third party posts on or through the Service. However, by posting Content using the Service you grant us the right and license to use, modify, publicly perform, publicly display, reproduce, and distribute such Content on and through the Service. You agree that this license includes the right for us to make your Content available to other users of the Service, who may also use your Content subject to these Terms. Women Also Know Stuff has the right but not the obligation to monitor and edit all Content provided by users. In addition, Content found on or through this Service are the property of Women Also Know Stuff or used with permission. You may not distribute, modify, transmit, reuse, download, repost, copy, or use said Content, whether in whole or in part, for commercial purposes or for personal gain, without express advance written permission from us.
When you create an account with us, you guarantee that you are above the age of 18, are a woman in the academic field of Political Science, and that the information you provide us is accurate, complete, and current at all times. Inaccurate, incomplete, or obsolete information may result in the immediate termination of your account on the Service. You are responsible for maintaining the confidentiality of your account and password, including but not limited to the restriction of access to your computer and/or account. You agree to accept responsibility for any and all activities or actions that occur under your account and/or password, whether your password is with our Service or a third-party service. You must notify us immediately upon becoming aware of any breach of security or unauthorized use of your account.
The Service and its original content (excluding Content provided by users), features and functionality are and will remain the exclusive property of Women Also Know Stuff and its licensors. The Service is protected by copyright, trademark, and other laws of both the United States and foreign countries. Our trademarks and trade dress may not be used in connection with any product or service without the prior written consent of Women Also Know Stuff. Links To Other Web Sites Our Service may contain links to third party web sites or services that are not owned or controlled by Women Also Know Stuff Women Also Know Stuff has no control over, and assumes no responsibility for the content, privacy policies, or practices of any third party web sites or services. We do not warrant the offerings of any of these entities/individuals or their websites. You acknowledge and agree that Women Also Know Stuff shall not be responsible or liable, directly or indirectly, for any damage or loss caused or alleged to be caused by or in connection with use of or reliance on any such content, goods or services available on or through any such third party web sites or services. We strongly advise you to read the terms and conditions and privacy policies of any third party web sites or services that you visit.
We may terminate or suspend your account and bar access to the Service immediately, without prior notice or liability, under our sole discretion, for any reason whatsoever and without limitation, including but not limited to a breach of the Terms. If you wish to terminate your account, you may simply discontinue using the Service, or notify us that you wish to delete your account. All provisions of the Terms which by their nature should survive termination shall survive termination, including, without limitation, ownership provisions, warranty disclaimers, indemnity and limitations of liability.
You agree to defend, indemnify and hold harmless Women Also Know Stuff and its licensee and licensors, and their employees, contractors, agents, officers and directors, from and against any and all claims, damages, obligations, losses, liabilities, costs or debt, and expenses (including but not limited to attorney's fees), resulting from or arising out of a) your use and access of the Service, by you or any person using your account and password; b) a breach of these Terms, or c) Content posted on the Service.
Limitation Of Liability
In no event shall Women Also Know Stuff, nor its directors, employees, partners, agents, suppliers, or affiliates, be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, consequential or punitive damages, including without limitation, loss of profits, data, use, goodwill, or other intangible losses, resulting from (i) your access to or use of or inability to access or use the Service; (ii) any conduct or content of any third party on the Service; (iii) any content obtained from the Service; and (iv) unauthorized access, use or alteration of your transmissions or content, whether based on warranty, contract, tort (including negligence) or any other legal theory, whether or not we have been informed of the possibility of such damage, and even if a remedy set forth herein is found to have failed of its essential purpose.
Your use of the Service is at your sole risk. The Service is provided on an "AS IS" and "AS AVAILABLE" basis. The Service is provided without warranties of any kind, whether express or implied, including, but not limited to, implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, non-infringement or course of performance. Women Also Know Stuff, its subsidiaries, affiliates, and its licensors do not warrant that a) the Service will function uninterrupted, secure or available at any particular time or location; b) any errors or defects will be corrected; c) the Service is free of viruses or other harmful components; or d) the results of using the Service will meet your requirements.
Some jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion of certain warranties or the exclusion or limitation of liability for consequential or incidental damages, so the limitations above may not apply to you.
These Terms shall be governed and construed in accordance with the laws of the state of Arizona and the United States, without regard to its conflict of law provisions. Our failure to enforce any right or provision of these Terms will not be considered a waiver of those rights. If any provision of these Terms is held to be invalid or unenforceable by a court, the remaining provisions of these Terms will remain in effect. These Terms constitute the entire agreement between us regarding our Service, and supersede and replace any prior agreements we might have had between us regarding the Service.
We reserve the right, at our sole discretion, to modify or replace these Terms at any time. If a revision is material we will provide at least 30 days notice prior to any new terms taking effect. What constitutes a material change will be determined at our sole discretion. By continuing to access or use our Service after any revisions become effective, you agree to be bound by the revised terms. If you do not agree to the new terms, you are no longer authorized to use the Service.
If you have any questions about these Terms, please contact us at .