Research Methods & Research Design
Race, Ethnicity and Politics
Elections, Election Administration, and Voting Behavior
Immigration & Citizenship
This book examines to what extent the effect of education on political and social tolerance varies cross-nationally. It gives an inventory of micro- and macro- level factors moderating this effect. The empirical analysis is based on comparative surveys across 24 and 33 countries at two time points. Results indicate that the positive effect of education does not always overcome the negative effects of personality characteristics and low socio-economic status. Moreover, education contributes to more tolerant views only in countries with certain political, socio-economic and cultural background. Overall, the book argues that there are several micro- and macro-level conditions that should be fulfilled before one may proclaim education as the universal problem solver.
While the positive relationship between education and tolerance is well documented in the developed West, evidence from countries with different geographical, political, socio-economic, and cultural background is more limited. Moreover, based on preliminary empirical evidence, I expected that the liberalizing effect of education may not be as universal as often assumed and may vary across national contexts. Using an analysis of variations in aggregate levels of tolerance as well as in the educational effect as a practical example, this case study shows how to apply multilevel modelling techniques using multilevel logistic and multilevel ordinal regression models. At the micro-level, data reported in the analysis are derived from the World Values Survey third wave (1995–1998) across 24 countries. At the macro-level, data are derived from the Polity IV project’s dataset regarding countries’ political regimes. The case study reviews the basic concepts, terminology, and applications of multilevel modelling.